Correction to Supporting Information for Wang et al., TLR4/MD-2 activation by a synthetic agonist with no similarity to LPS [SI Correction]

IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction to Supporting Information for “TLR4/MD-2 activation by a synthetic agonist with no similarity to LPS,” by Ying Wang, Lijing Su, Matthew D. Morin, Brian T. Jones, Landon R. Whitby, Murali M. R. P. Surakattula, Hua Huang, Hexin Shi, Jin Huk Choi, Kuan-wen Wang, Eva Marie Y….

Contrasting cardiovascular mortality trends in Eastern Mediterranean populations: Contributions from risk factor changes and treatments

Publication date: 1 April 2016Source:International Journal of Cardiology, Volume 208 Author(s): Julia Critchley, Simon Capewell, Martin O’Flaherty, Niveen Abu-Rmeileh, Samer Rastam, Olfa Saidi, Kaan Sözmen, Azza Shoaibi, Abdullatif Husseini, Fouad Fouad, Nadia Ben Mansour, Wafa Aissi, Habiba Ben Romdhane, Belgin Unal, Piotr Bandosz, Kathleen Bennett, Mukesh Dherani, Radwan Al Ali, Wasim Maziak, Hale Arık, Gül Gerçeklioğlu, Deniz Utku Altun, Hatice Şimşek, Sinem Doganay, Yücel Demiral, Özgür Aslan, Nigel Unwin, Peter Phillimore, Nourredine Achour, Waffa Aissi, Riadh Allani, Chokra Arfa, Heidar Abu-Kteish, Niveen Abu-Rmeileh, Radwan Al Ali, Deniz Altun, Balsam Ahmad, Hale Arık, Özgür Aslan, Latifa Beltaifa, Nadia Ben Mansour, Kathleen Bennett, Habiba Ben Romdhane, Nabil Ben Salah, Marissa Collins, Julia Critchley, Simon Capewell, Mukesh Dherani, Yücel Demiral, Sinem Doganay, Madonna Elias, Gül Ergör, Ibtihal Fadhil, Fouad Fouad, Gül Gerçeklioğlu, Rula Ghandour, Sibel Göğen, Abdullatif Husseini, Samer Jaber, Sibel Kalaca, Rana Khatib, Rasha Khatib, Saer Koudsie, Bülent Kilic, Olfa Lassoued, Helen Mason, Wasim Maziak, Maher Abou Mayaleh, Nahed Mikki, Ghmaez Moukeh, Martin O. Flaherty, Peter Phillimore, Samer Rastam, Gojka Roglic, Olfa Saidi, Gül Saatli, Ilhan Satman, Azza Shoaibi, Hatice Şimşek, Nesrien Soulaiman, Kaan Sözmen, Faten Tlili, Belgin Unal, Nigel Unwin, Nazan Yardim, Shahaduz ZamanBackgroundMiddle income countries are facing an epidemic of non-communicable diseases, especially coronary heart disease (CHD). We used a validated CHD mortality model (IMPACT) to explain recent trends in Tunisia, Syria, the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) and Turkey.MethodsData on populations, mortality, patient numbers, treatments and risk factor trends from national and local surveys in each country were collated over two time points (1995–97; 2006–09); integrated and analysed using the IMPACT model.ResultsRisk factor trends: Smoking prevalence was high in men, persisting in Syria but decreasing in Tunisia, oPt and Turkey. BMI rose by 1–2kg/m2 and diabetes prevalence increased by 40%–50%. Mean systolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels increased in Tunisia and Syria.Mortality trends: Age-standardised CHD mortality rates rose by 20% in Tunisia and 62% in Syria. Much of this increase (79% and 72% respectively) was attributed to adverse trends in major risk factors, occurring despite some improvements in treatment uptake.CHD mortality rates fell by 17% in oPt and by 25% in Turkey, with risk factor changes accounting for around 46% and 30% of this reduction respectively. Increased uptake of community treatments (drug treatments for chronic angina, heart failure, hypertension and secondary prevention after a cardiac event) accounted for most of the remainder.DiscussionCHD death rates are rising in Tunisia and Syria, whilst oPt and Turkey demonstrate clear falls, reflecting improvements in major risk factors with contributions from medical treatments. However, smoking prevalence remains very high in men; obesity and diabetes levels are rising dramatically.

Quartz c-axis orientation patterns in fracture cement as a measure of fracture opening rate and a validation tool for fracture pattern models

We evaluate a published model for crystal growth patterns in quartz cement in sandstone fractures by comparing crystal fracture-spanning predictions to quartz c-axis orientation distributions measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) of spanning quartz deposits. Samples from eight subvertical opening-mode fractures in four sandstone formations, the Jurassic–Cretaceous Nikanassin Formation, northwestern Alberta Foothills (Canada), Cretaceous Mesaverde Group (USA; Cozzette Sandstone Member of the Iles Formation), Piceance Basin, Colorado (USA), and upper Jurassic–lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group (Taylor sandstone) and overlying Travis Peak Formation, east Texas, have similar quartzose composition and grain size but contain fractures with different temperature histories and opening rates based on fluid inclusion assemblages and burial history. Spherical statistical analysis shows that, in agreement with model predictions, bridging crystals have a preferred orientation with c-axis orientations at a high angle to fracture walls. The second form of validation is for spanning potential that depends on the size of cut substrate grains. Using measured cut substrate grain sizes and c-axis orientations of spanning bridges, we calculated the required orientation for the smallest cut grain to span the maximum gap size and the required orientation of the crystal with the least spanning potential to form overgrowths that span across maximum measured gap sizes. We find that within a 10° error all spanning crystals conform to model predictions. Using crystals with the lowest spanning potential based on crystallographic orientation (c-axis parallel to fracture wall) and a temperature range for fracture opening measured from fluid inclusion assemblages, we calculate maximum fracture opening rates that allow crystals to span. These rates are comparable to those derived independently from fracture temperature histories based on burial history and multiple sequential fluid inclusion assemblages. Results support the R. Lander and S. Laubach model, which predicts that for quartz deposited synchronously with fracture opening, spanning potential, or likelihood of quartz deposits that are thick enough to span between fracture walls, depends on temperature history, fracture opening rate, size of opening increments, and size, mineralogy, and crystallographic orientation of substrates in the fracture wall (transected grains). Results suggest that EBSD maps, which can be more rapidly acquired than measurement of tens to hundreds of fluid inclusion assemblages, can provide a useful measure of relative opening rates within populations of quartz-filled fractures formed under sedimentary basin conditions. Such data are useful for evaluating fracture pattern development models.

Quartz c-axis orientation patterns in fracture cement as a measure of fracture opening rate and a validation tool for fracture pattern models

We evaluate a published model for crystal growth patterns in quartz cement in sandstone fractures by comparing crystal fracture-spanning predictions to quartz c-axis orientation distributions measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) of spanning quartz deposits. Samples from eight subvertical opening-mode fractures in four sandstone formations, the Jurassic–Cretaceous Nikanassin Formation, northwestern Alberta Foothills (Canada), Cretaceous Mesaverde Group (USA; Cozzette Sandstone Member of the Iles Formation), Piceance Basin, Colorado (USA), and upper Jurassic–lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group (Taylor sandstone) and overlying Travis Peak Formation, east Texas, have similar quartzose composition and grain size but contain fractures with different temperature histories and opening rates based on fluid inclusion assemblages and burial history. Spherical statistical analysis shows that, in agreement with model predictions, bridging crystals have a preferred orientation with c-axis orientations at a high angle to fracture walls. The second form of validation is for spanning potential that depends on the size of cut substrate grains. Using measured cut substrate grain sizes and c-axis orientations of spanning bridges, we calculated the required orientation for the smallest cut grain to span the maximum gap size and the required orientation of the crystal with the least spanning potential to form overgrowths that span across maximum measured gap sizes. We find that within a 10° error all spanning crystals conform to model predictions. Using crystals with the lowest spanning potential based on crystallographic orientation (c-axis parallel to fracture wall) and a temperature range for fracture opening measured from fluid inclusion assemblages, we calculate maximum fracture opening rates that allow crystals to span. These rates are comparable to those derived independently from fracture temperature histories based on burial history and multiple sequential fluid inclusion assemblages. Results support the R. Lander and S. Laubach model, which predicts that for quartz deposited synchronously with fracture opening, spanning potential, or likelihood of quartz deposits that are thick enough to span between fracture walls, depends on temperature history, fracture opening rate, size of opening increments, and size, mineralogy, and crystallographic orientation of substrates in the fracture wall (transected grains). Results suggest that EBSD maps, which can be more rapidly acquired than measurement of tens to hundreds of fluid inclusion assemblages, can provide a useful measure of relative opening rates within populations of quartz-filled fractures formed under sedimentary basin conditions. Such data are useful for evaluating fracture pattern development models.

Correction for Mullarky et al., Identification of a small molecule inhibitor of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase to target serine biosynthesis in cancers [Correction]

BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for “Identification of a small molecule inhibitor of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase to target serine biosynthesis in cancers,” by Edouard Mullarky, Natasha C. Lucki, Reza Beheshti Zavareh, Justin L. Anglin, Ana P. Gomes, Brandon N. Nicolay, Jenny C. Y. Wong, Stefan Christen, Hidenori Takahashi, Pradeep K. Singh, John Blenis, J….

Disease specificity of autoantibodies to cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase 1A in sporadic inclusion body myositis versus known autoimmune diseases

ObjectivesThe diagnosis of inclusion body myositis (IBM) can be challenging as it can be difficult to clinically distinguish from other forms of myositis, particularly polymyositis (PM). Recent studies have shown frequent presence of autoantibodies directed against cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase 1A (cN-1A) in patients with IBM. We therefore, examined the autoantigenicity and disease specificity of major epitopes of cN-1A in patients with sporadic IBM compared with healthy and disease controls.
MethodsSerum samples obtained from patients with IBM (n=238), PM and dermatomyositis (DM) (n=185), other autoimmune diseases (n=246), other neuromuscular diseases (n=93) and healthy controls (n=35) were analysed for the presence of autoantibodies using immunodominant cN-1A peptide ELISAs.
ResultsAutoantibodies directed against major epitopes of cN-1A were frequent in patients with IBM (37%) but not in PM, DM or non-autoimmune neuromuscular diseases (<5%). Anti-cN-1A reactivity was also observed in some other autoimmune diseases, particularly Sjögren's syndrome (SjS; 36%) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; 20%).
ConclusionsIn summary, we found frequent anti-cN-1A autoantibodies in sera from patients with IBM. Heterogeneity in reactivity with the three immunodominant epitopes indicates that serological assays should not be limited to a distinct epitope region. The similar reactivities observed for SjS and SLE demonstrate the need to further investigate whether distinct IBM-specific epitopes exist.